Sandra Freitas Universidade de Brasília. Faculdades de ciência de Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em saúde Coletiva. Brasília, DF, Brasil. E-mail: sandrashamsa
gmail.comhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-5565-7849 Ximena Pamela Díaz Bermúdez Universidade de Brasília. Faculdade de ciências de Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em saúde Coletiva. Brasília, DF, Brasil. E-mail: sandrashamsa
gmail.comhttp://orcid.org/0000-0002-3771-7684 Edgar Mérchan-Hamann Universidade de Brasília. Faculdade de ciências de Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em saúde Coletiva. Brasília, DF, Brasil. E-mail: sandrashamsa
Abstract

This is a study on the narratives of young college student self-identified as part of social segments of lesbian, gay, bisexual e trans world (LGBT), quem acted as protagonists in jobs to promote health and defend human being rights in institution contexts. The aprender used qualitative methodological strategies, such together recording a participants’ vida history and in-depth interviews, aiming to understand a meanings attributed to actions arisen in ns projects and to aspects of their vida experiences. Ao three months e in different settings, a trans woman, der cis gay man e a cis lesbian mrs participated in ns interviews, share their vida experience. This write-up contemplates four central categories established in a narratives: identities and diversity, mapa of violence, affective-sexual experience of young LGBT students e health promo of young LGBT world in the school setting. Ns violence described shows physical, psychological, sexual aspects, as well as neglect and abandonment. Differentiate in a family e at institution scenarios emerged as naquela mark the suffering. Us concluded the sexuality and human rights education projects in schools have the right to be taken into consideration an opportunity para knowledge and exchange between peers, permitting for a more humane e protective suffer of a affectivity and sexuality that young LGBT people. Atlas Ti version 8 supported the encontro processing e codification.

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Keywords:Sexuality; human Rights


Introduction

This post addresses experiences report by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transvestite, transsexual and transgender (LGBT) adolescents e young people participating in wellness promotion projects in ns school space. The is important, however, to define preliminarily what the is come be naquela teenager or der young person. Porque o the mundo Health company (WHO), adolescence is der period in between 10 and 19 years com intense biological e psychosocial changes, when youth covers são de 15 to 24 years. In ns Brazilian estatuto da bobber e dá Adolescente (ECA - state of ns Child e Adolescent), adolescence occurs in between 12 e 18 incomplete years. In the status da Juventude, i m sorry addresses a rights, principles e guidelines of publicamente policies of young people, this period is defined between 15 and 29 years. However, knowledge adolescence and youth requires naquela broader understanding than simply considering chronological elements of age.

The hatchet “youth”, sociologically, mostra some perspectives. Pais (1990PAIS, J. M. A ereção sociológica da juventude: algum contributos. Analisadas Social, Lisboa, v. 25, n. 105-106, p. 139-165, 1990.) proposes ns classification in currents, being a generational one, i m sorry favors açao factors and biological aspects, approaching der more universalist dimension of young people, e another, the classist one, i beg your pardon assumes youth as naquela phenomenon affected by the social markers of insertion of young civilization in different social classes, life experiences and forms of social integration. Bourdieu (1983BOURDIEU, P. Der juventude é somente uma palavra: perguntar de sociologia. Tradução Jeni Vaitsman. Fluviais de Janeiro: marco Zero, 1983.) suggests that classifying youth considering only lei and organic factors go not enable to understand a concept in ns complexity the its dimensions. Other perspectives show up in a way young world insert us in ns world and in a practices and life projects linked to the meanings provided to life and social relations created in a various contexts.

LGBT youth protagonism in school room proposes reflections the can broaden perceptions and give novo meanings to ns experiences the sexuality e affectivity, potentiating a role that youth in a contemporary world. The term LGBT is offered to stand for sexual e gender diversity, but other inserts have actually been design by the assumption of visibility, such as the acronym LGBTQI+, in i m sorry “Q” advert to a English native queer, originally used pejoratively, as well as fag and faggot in English, bend in German, marica in Spanish or viado in Portuguese. Queiroz was subsequently re-signified by a theoretical contributions of several scholars, including Butler (2002BUTLER, J. Criticamente subversiva. In: JIMÉNEZ, R. M. M. Sexualidades transgressoras: ns antologia de estúdios queer. Barcelona: Icária, 2002.), quem makes a critical reading of performative e hierarchical gender coercive normalizations. Ns designation “I” is used para the recognition of the intersex person, and the (+) in ns perspective the other sex categories. Still, according to Jesus (2012JESUS, J. G. De. Orientações sobre identidade de gênero: conceitos e termos. Brasília: Jaqueline gomes de Jesus, 2012.), “sex” is usually characterized biologically e gender translates social issues; based on such assumptions, a human being receives der designation that “gender” at birth. Thus, when naquela person identifies with the “gender” that defined them in ~ birth, they are classified together cisgender (cis), e when this “gender” differs a partir de their identity, they ~ ~ classified together transgender (trans). Because there is durante consensus regarding the use of these terms in ns academia, ns use of a cis and trans state to describe the pesquisar participants is as result of their mention by the young people themselves in your narratives.

The focus of this pesquisar is to reflect on health e sexuality, themes present in ns conceptions and practices that adolescents and young people who attend school spaces. We likewise aimed to straight thought to ns role of schools as privileged spaces porque o health education e promotion the practices and interventions that add to a well-being that this population, due to the fact that being young LGBT in the school an are is a challenge, in the enfrentar of advances e setbacks of instrutivo policy in Brazil.

Historical note portray that stating sexuality, particularly in schools, during the military dictatorship, ser estar not well-regarded by a current conservative principles (Bedin, 2016BEDIN, R. C. A biografia do essencial de pesquisar da sexualidade e seus participação na trajetória do compreendo sexual na UNESP. 2016. Proposição (Doutorado em adestramento Escolar) - faculdade de ciências e Letras, Universidade estadual Paulista júlio de mesquita Filho, Araraquara, 2016.). In a 1980s, with ns loosening the censorship, the concern to pegar the discutir to institutions resurfaced, fueled by ns response to a HIV/AIDS epidemic and the boost in the number the teenage pregnancies in schools. Apenas um in 1997, ns Parâmetros Curriculares nacionais (PCN - nacional Curriculum Parameters) listed official recognition of the need come establish der transversal dialogue on sexuality education in schools, despite the current hygienist e biologizing discourse (Bueno; Ribeiro, 2018BUENO, R. C. P.; RIBEIRO, P. R. M. História da educação sexual no decorrer Brasil: apontamentos porque o reflexão. Revista brasileira de Sexualidade Humana, rio de Janeiro, v. 29, n. 1, p. 49-56, 2018. DOI: 10.35919/rbsh.v29i1.41https://doi.org/10.35919/rbsh.v29i1.41... ). However, it was only between 2003 e 2011 that social inclusion policies made possible rapprochement com LGBT social movements, enabling an increase in academic production on the subject, increasing a visibility that gender e sexual diversity problems in instrutivo policies, e putting on the agenda issues still taken into consideration taboo in ns school environment.

It is vital to know that the school projeto that housed a experiences narrated aqui began at a time of acknowledgment of ns role of ns state and public health and education plans in relationship to the school. As the projeto developed, the projeto Saúde e prevenção nas escolas (SPE - Health and Prevention in Schools) ser estar implemented in 2003, i m sorry validated HIV/AIDS prevention and education in sexuality e human rights in schools. In 2004, the para aconselhar Nacional de luta à batidos (National board of directors to protect against Discrimination) ongoing this strategy, publishing a document “Brasil não tem Homofobia: Programa de batalha à violência e à discriminação anti LGTB e de doutorados da direitos civis homossexual” (Brazil there is no Homophobia: a program to prevent violence e discrimination versus LGBT e to promote homosexual citizenship), expressing the intersectoral plan of confronting homophobia. As of 2007, the Programa saúde na escolas (PSE - health and wellness at institution Program) ser estar created, with the intention of increase actions for integral development and community joining in health e education programs e projects (Brazil, 2011BRASIL. Programa saúde na Escola: tecendo caminhos da intersetorialidade. Brasília, DF: gabinete da Saúde, 2011.).

Gradually, they developed human rights approaches in schools a partir de 2003, but only in 2012, the diretrizes Nacionais para adestramento em direito Humanos (EDH - nacional Guidelines ao Human legal rights Education) were developed in institution settings (Beleche; Silva, 2017BELECHE, F. L. K.; SILVA, S. C. A educar em direito humanos na escola. In: congresso NACIONAL DE EDUCAÇÃO, 13., 2017, Curitiba. Anais… Curitiba: pontifícia Universidade católico do Paraná, 2017.). These guidelines intended to articulate spaces porque o debate, proceeding training e establishing support rede in a school community, and adopting, in this environment, ns reduction that individual and social vulnerabilities, building spaces that respect porque o diversity, fighting violence and establishing defense mechanisms.

On ns other hand, in 2004, in the political field, the escolas Sem quebrado movement (School with no Political Party) began, claiming to represent parents e students opposed to what that defenders called “ideological indoctrination” in schools, trying, among several setbacks, come exclude themes and terms together as sexual orientation and gender a partir de the plano Nacional da educar (PNE - nacional Education Plan) and the base Nacional compartilhado Curricular (BNCC - national Common Curriculum Base). Ns conservative bench ser estar strengthening in power, top to the cooling of actions e dismantling of hard-won policies. With ns country politics divided, mainly a partir de 2014, the escolas sem errado movement gained more space. Currently, there is naquela setback regarding ns inclusion of these themes in college agendas, such together sexuality, gender e human rights, deleted from documents relevant to resfriamento support for actions linked to ns formation of citizenship.

According to Neves (2017NEVES, M. B. Adestramento em sexualidade: perspectiva na determinação de adolescentes e jovens? eles são Paulo: Novas edições Acadêmicas, 2017.), transparent 2014, there to be plans to minimization inequalities com emphasis on a promotion of racial equity, gender and sexual orientation in ns PNE e BNCC; however, ns approved text excluded such purposes e the government continues to plaster spaces of liberty of expression, potentiating prejudice and discrimination that LGBT youth. For Deslandes (2015DESLANDES, K. Formação de professor e permissão humanos: construindo colégio promotoras da igualdade. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica; amarelo Preto: UFOP, 2015.), this threatens the construction of democratic values in society. Additionally, religious conceptions imbricated in a political scenario have actually eclipsed ns secularism of the state and stimulated stigma, discrimination e vulnerability come violence directed at together segments the youth (Silva; Paiva; Parker, 2013SILVA, C. G.; PAIVA, V.; PARKER, R. Juventude religiosa e homossexualidade: desafio para a promoção da saúde e de direito sexuais. Interface, Botucatu, v. 17, n. 44, p. 103-117, 2013. DOI: 10.1590/S1414-32832013000100009https://doi.org/10.1590/S1414-3283201300... ). Regardless of this, some colleges persist in make the efforts to increase spaces for the counter-hegemonic discussion of ns rights, sexuality e affectivity the young people.

In this article, in addition to a experiences of the young protagonists together interlocutors with their partner in school, us intended to understand como as they enfrentar affectivity and sexuality e the definitions attributed come their life trajectories and school project.

Methodology and context

This is a qualitative pesquisar based on a systematization that narratives e life story of 3 young LGBT people, former students of naquela school that occurred health promotion projects, whereby they were protagonists and coordinators of this initiative in assorted environments. Ao three months, the young people were accompanied by the researcher in 29 meetings. Semi-structured interviews were arisen based on der pre-established script, which addressed a following subjects: school trajectory, quality of family e social relationships, facilities and difficulties of experiencing sexuality and affectivity, involvement as protagonists in education and learning actions in sexuality, human being rights and health in schools. The pesquisar took place within ns framework of a project in a public school, since 2001.

The school project brought an important reflections the encouraged ns formation of young protagonists in a methodology of peer education. The experience foi ~ shown in an internacional forum and was likewise recognized by domestic e foreign organizations. Currently, the projeto has become der non-governmental company (NGO), with a aim of proceeding to promote a citizen building of young people. In their coordination, as naquela reflection the resistance, LGBT youth, para the most part, dictate ns pace of actions.

The dia of ns interviews were confronted com field diary notes from perceptions, body expression e symbolic depictions seized during the research. Spelling, orthography interviews were analyzed by a Atlas TI 8 software. A narrative essa was classified em ~ the systems of meaning, following the content analysis technique of Bardin (1977BARDIN, L. Analisado de conteúdo. Elas Paulo: despesa 70, 1977.). The encontro were selected in quotations, represented as significant excerpts em ~ the transcripts, codes together phrases e words that summarized relevant excerpts and code groups, representing the centrais categories of analysis. Ns investigation observed the ethical considerations involving person beings, in accordance with current standards, e theprojeto was authorized by the research Ethics Committee of the universidade de saúde of a Universidade de Brasília (CEP/FS/UnB), under number 2,270,313.

Results e discussion

Three young LGBT people participated in the study. A 20-year-old trans woman, previous student of ns school where she started the process that accepting she transvestism, a 20-year-old cis feliz man, who got involved with the projeto as a student, and a 17-year-old cis lesbian woman, who upon conference theprojeto collaborated com activities inside e outside a school. Currently, todos of them, directly or indirectly, collaborate with ns NGO.

From a floating analysis of ns narratives and the an option of ns significant excerpts são de the transcripts, four centrais categories emerged for the conception that this article: classification I - Identities e Diversity; category II - mapa of Violence; Category iii - Affective-sexual experiences of young LGBT students; e Category IV - wellness promotion of young LGBT in college settings. Ns results developed four representative figures referred to as networks, shown below.

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Category I: Identities and Diversity

In ns Identities e Diversity category, discoveries about identity, fear of social non-acceptance e feelings of refusal emerged. Denying LGBT identity can be a consequence of internalized homophobia, naquela term coined through Alan Malyon (1982MALYON, A. K. Psychotherapeutic ramifications of internalized homophobia in homossexual men. Diário of Homosexuality, novo York, v. 7, n. 2-3, p. 59-69, 1982. DOI: 10.1300/j082v07n02_08https://doi.org/10.1300/j082v07n02_08... ), i m sorry expresses self-concept e self-contempt as der result of desires and behaviors unrelated to cis-heteronormative norms e which, internalized by LGBT people, hinder a process of acceptance and assumption of their sexuality and identity and contribute to the stigmatization that peers. On ns other hand, a young human being expressed combine of identity e “empowerment”, introspection and struggle para belonging, allowing a diverse e original look at themselves, as expressed in figure 1.