Zank, Sofia; Hanazaki, Natalia. Evidence - Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; novo York Vol. 2012, (2012).DOI:10.1155/2012/563570

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1. Introduction

Among ns known intervir resources regulated by person populations, medicinal tree stand o fim as important links between people e the inverno environment, naquela knowledge the is existing in many local communities e with naquela large abundance of known e used varieties <1–6>. A knowledge that medicinal plants in traditional communities is very closely linked to a practical facet (doing), having actually been developed over ns years by social interactions of people among themselves e with ns surrounding environment, this expertise assumes crucial role in ns identity formation e self-recognition of these populations.

The usar of medicinal tree in therapies is der widespread prática in folk medicine <4, 7, 8>. Accessibility to modern medicine by the local population does no eliminate a use of local medicinal practices, which is often contained in therapeutic pluralism of ns communities. While no eliminating the prática of folk medicine, the introduction of contemporary medicine might lead to ns disappearance or change of some traditional practices <7, 9>. Other factors may additionally influence a knowledge of medicinal plants, such together gender, type of learning, religion, and açao among others. In relation to gender, porque o example, numerous studies show that various occupations in between men and women end up affecting their expertise of plants <10–13>.

Local knowledge can likewise be affected by transforms in traditional practices. Ns loss of intervir areas, because of urbanization or massive agriculture, could influence significantly classic practices. Natural areas ser estar a resource of therapeutic resource para many communities, and also naquela space for social organization and cultural reproduction. In ns coastal an ar of Brazil, uncontrolled city expansion and property speculation have actually led to extensive loss of natural areas, culture, and traditions the communities vida in these areas <5, 8>. Ns access to territory is of major importance to maintain ns local e traditional caminho of life, because a environment of every given local community has a conditions for their culturais reproduction and identity <14>.

As der form that resistance to the urbanization pressure, some timeless communities have actually been organizing and seeking acknowledgment of their rights of accessibility to land and natural resources. A strategy for recognition of their civil liberties is ns establishment of defended areas ao sustainable use, allowing the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, sustainable use, and conservation of plant sources <15>. The latter realidade can be viewed in a south-central coastline of santa Catarina, where local communities have actually requested a creation of two protected areas (PAs) for sustainable use, an Extractive reserve (RESEX) para the Artisanal Fisheries of Imbituba and Garopaba e the Areais da Ribanceira Sustainable development Reserve (RDS). The establishment of this PAs is a form of withstanding pressures e ensuring access to territory e natural resources para local communities.

Studies of how local expertise is organized e influenced ser estar important ao understanding the processes e maintenance of local knowledge generation. The preservation of culturais identity requires that local knowledge is passed são de generation come generation <16>, e that the processes of knowledge generation estão maintained. Moreover, these research studies collaborated to incorporate a difference in understanding of aboriginal plant into strategies ao conservation.

In this context, this pesquisar aimed to investigate the knowledge about medicinal plants in dois regions proposed para protected areas ao sustainable use in the municipality the Imbituba (SC). And seeking to analyze ns influence the gender, kind of learning, e modern medicine on medicinal tree knowledge. In this study, reflections are made on the relationship of medicine plant understanding with the maintenance of traditional livelihoods and biodiversity conservation.

2. Area of Study

The municipality the Imbituba is located on a south-central coast of ns state of Santa catarina (Brazil), around 90 km south of the capital Florianópolis (Figure 1). Imbituba is der port city, with der population of around 40,000 inhabitants. All municipality is taken into consideration urban, e this means that human being who ~ ~ farmers have actually easy accessibility to market, hospital, e other modern-day facilities.

The seaside landscapes present in Imbituba estão heterogeneous e complex spatial frameworks <17, 18>. Imbituba is situated in a Atlantic forest biome, where naquela mosaic of different ecosystems ser estar present, ranging são de restinga to dense ombrophyllous forest. Other functions of this landscape incorporate lagoons, swamps, wooded restingas, grassy restingas, shrub restingas, butiazais (areas with alto densities of an endemic little palm, Butia catarinensis Noblick & Lorenzi), e dense submontane ombrophyllous forest <17, 18>.

The restinga vegetation is current in sand dune arrays composed largely of endemic vegetation, which consists of “originally herbaceous formations, undergrowth, shrub, or tree, which can happen in mosaics and also have locations that ~ ~ naturally devoid of vegetation; such formations may have been kept as main or transformed right into secondary, as naquela result of natural processes or person intervention” <19>.

The occupation of a region is grande standing, developed in 1715 as a core the Azorean colonization e pioneers. Until ns 1960s, families ensured their livelihoods with a combination that agriculture, fishing, and hunting <20>. A agricultural management made usar of slash-and-burn farming, consisting of the accumulation the branches the were incinerated at ns same equipe to clear and fertilize croplands <18>.

The production sistema connected to família farming and artisanal fishing continued to be until the tão tarde 1970s, when a increase of traveler activities, with ns implementation of the BR-101 e the intense home speculation, strongly contributed to der distortion of the traditional populations <17, 20>. In ~ this time a Imbituba industrial Complex was implemented in ns Areais da Ribanceira an ar with a promise that creating novo jobs the did not materialize. Thus, numerous farming families were displaced, yet continued to occupy ns area e practice farming <17>.

Farmers and traditional fisherman in Imbituba have been going v an intense process of progressivo land lose in order to carry lado de fora their way of life, together as access to the sea, lakes, farming fields, and the resources em ~ these locations <20>. As der way to resist these pressures, farmers and fishermen in Imbituba proposed the creation of two PAs, one RESEX e an RDS. The purpose of this PA is to protect inverno environments and to ensure a maintenance of the farmers e fishermen"s livelihoods <17, 18>. Besides these dois PAs in a making, ns region is covered by the Environmental Protection área (APA) of a southern appropriate whale, founded in 2000, in order to protect the southern appropriate whale (Eubalaena australis, Desmoulins, 1822) e ensure ns sustainable usar of intervir resources in the region.

The initiative for the creation of the PAs comes from local ar organizations e was sustained by different groups. The process of creating a RESEX began in 2005, on inquiry of a Forum cronograma 21 the Ibiraquera and the combinação of anglers of Ibiraquera (ASPECI). This PA includes a municipalities that Imbituba and Garopaba, com an área of around 19.930 hectares, covering a lagoons the Ibiraquera, Doce, Encantada e Garopaba, e the nearby coastline. A most significant portions ser estar covered through water sheets (sea and lakes) e the área of the extractive reserve falls partly in ~ the limite of the of the southern ideal whale protected area <17>.

The request para the creation of RDS Areais da Ribanceira ser estar presented through the interior Community associação of Imbituba (ACORDI) in respectable 2005. The área proposed for RDS covers and encompasses agricultural areas, restinga ecosystems, and dense ombrophyllous forest. These environments ~ ~ also used ao the extraction of plant sources such as medicinal plants e B. Catarinensis. A total area proposed porque o the RDS is roughly 2.100 hectares, and part that the area is contained in the southern appropriate whale protected area <18>.

The procedures porque o the development of RESEX ~ ~ in an advanced stage that negotiations, somente requiring the duram approval by ns Brazilian ministry of Environment. However, there ~ ~ still several steps to be completed in ns procedures porque o the RDS creation.

3. Methods

3.1. Data Collection

The ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants era collected during the period between August 2009 and June 2010, through structured interviews com key informants, cost-free lists, field notes, e guided tours <21>. Ns participation the informants was dependent on a acceptance of the term of prior educated consent (TAP).

Data era collected in 11 localities of Imbituba: Aguada, Areais da Ribanceira, Arroio, alto Arroio, Barranceira, área D’Una, Imbituba Center, Divinéia, Ibiraquera, Morro do Mirim, and Ribanceira. This localities, or neighborhoods, estão close to each other and with basic access, so civilization who viver in der certain locality have relationships com people of various other localities.

Sampling of pesquisar subjects era intentional; interviews to be conducted com key informants, also called local experts, were known as having a specific knowledge. Ns selection of informants was based on ns “snowball” method <22>, in which every informant indicates other informants come cover the largest variety of people who have the specific understanding being investigated. A following to be criteria porque o informant inclusion: adults, residents ao over 20 years in the region e had knowledge of medicine plants. Sampling foi ~ initiated through the indication of community leaders and researchers who developed researches in ns communities e ended once there were durante more novo indications. Some informants were had randomly by accident, if looking up info on the homes that other crucial informants. The interviews were structured <21> e based on naquela preset of inquiries regarding a socioeconomic estado of the informants, the way that learning around medicinal plants, differences in present and past knowledge e use of medicine plants, classic therapies, contemporary medicine, and a free list of known medicinal tree species.

A pilot estude was conducted with three world to verify ns need to adjust ns methodology <21>. The interviews in a pilot pesquisar were included in the data, since ns questionnaire underwent somente minor modifications.

The free-list method, in which participants ser estar asked come list a plants they recognize <21>, foi ~ conducted with todos informants and was intended come raise ns species richness of known medicinal plants e specific information around these tree (the use/purpose, how it era obtained, and collection sites). The plants mentioned were built up in guided tours. Ns tour era held after the interview, taking localização in ns backyard of a respondent’s home. Tourism were also held in locations of aboriginal vegetation com informants who cited selvagem plants and those the were available porque o such one activity.

The arsenal of cited tree samples era conducted following ns standard procedure para ethnobotanical types collection <21>. Plant products were determined by certain bibliographies and consultations com experts. Plant coisas was deposit in ns herbarium flor (UFSC/SC) and in a collection of a Human Ecology and Ethnobotany Laboratory/UFSC. Identification followed a classification sistema of APG II and scientific name were checked by consulting the website of the missouri Botanical Garden <23>.

Some pointed out plants to be not gathered due come their lack in a vicinity of homes, low abundance of some native types in the intervir ecosystems, e walks com elderly informants that might not be lugged out. The plants that were not built up were identified according to ns collected specimens the had the same typical name, or if there were no decorrer collected specimens, tree were determined by ns description and by a common names. Ns specimens com common names that include an ext than 1 scientific species (e.g., espinheira-santa, anador, quina) or the there is enquanto reference in ns literature were classified together unidentified and were excluded em ~ the analysis.

In some situations, informants were visited an ext than once, in stimulate to collection plant specimens. Any extr plants that developed during these visits to be not included in ns comparative evaluation between ns informants, therefore that the difference in sampling did not influence a results.

The retorna of a results em ~ the aprender occurred during ns research, de acordo com to a demands gift by a community. Technical reports were ready to assist in the resfriamento process of access to land, lectures were held at community events e a workshop to retorna study results. An illustrative brochure publicizing the local ecological knowledge ser estar also developed.

3.2. Dia Analysis

Interviews e free lists were analyzed making use of descriptive statistics. The classification of suggested therapies foi ~ done de acordo com to mundo Health company (WHO) <24>, yet various other categories were included because the community identify some local diseases that were not classified through WHO. To analyze well-known medicinal species a list of discussed plants ser estar prepared, with a plants usual name/ethnospecies (in this study, ethnospecies foi ~ considered naquela synonym of common name, i.e., a identification of tree is done em ~ the expertise of ns interviewees), botanical classification e frequency the citation. Randomized species-accumulation curve era used, seeking come assess the expected wealth of used and known plants by ns number of plant varieties <25>. This analysis ser estar performed using ns program estimates version 8.0 <26> with the Chao 2 wealth estimator.

To analyze a influence of gender (male e female) and forms of finding out (by elderly and courses/books) on understanding of medicinal plants, the species richness para each coporação, grupo was compared using naquela t-test para gender and Mann-Whitney U, porque o form the learning—because the encontro did not show normality and homogeneity. Ns composition of the species mentioned by each coporação, grupo was compared using the ANOSIM analysis, using naquela matrix that presence e absence of quote species, where a informants were the sampling units e species discussed were a variables. In this matrix, types mentioned through only one informant to be excluded. From the absence/presence matrix, the Sorensen similarity matrix foi ~ calculated using ns clustering method UPGMA. This analysis ser estar performed using a program primer 6.0 Beta <27>. The influence of form of learning ser estar also analyzed with frequency of information about ns question of como as the person have learned around medicinal plants.

The affect of contemporary medicine ser estar analyzed through a frequency of the medicinal plants and manufactured drugs that have been offered by the família in the last month. Frequency evaluation also was done ao the usar of doctors/agent of estendido medicine e the tardy of mudança on medicinal tree knowledge.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Interviews

Twenty-three an essential informants, 9 men and 14 women, were interviewed. It is notable that in three interviews com male informants your wives were additionally present. Ripe participants are members the ACORDI (Rural Community association of Imbituba) and are involved in the process the creating a RDS. 5 informants, or people of your households, are involved in ns movement to create ns RESEX.

The informants were between ns ages that 40 and 86 years, ns average being 68.5 year (SD 9.5). Fourteen ser estar married, seven widowed, and two single. The families of the respondents have an median of 4 crianças (ranging a partir de 0 to 9), vida an median of 4 persons per household (ranging from 1 to 7). In regards to income, 65% are retired, 9% receive der pension, e 8% have income a partir de fishing e agriculture, e 8% have their income em ~ other services (health sector e school). Some retired world have to be employed ~ above past, yet they preserve farm practices during todos live, getting an ext expressive throughout retiring time.

4.2. Knowledge of medicinal Plants

Through interviews e guided tourism 218 ethnospecies of medicine plants to be recorded, of i beg your pardon 197 were established taxonomically, belonging to 70 botanical households (Table 1). Ns families Asteraceae (16%) e Lamiaceae (8.5%) amounted to a highest variety of species of quote medicinal plants. Asteraceae e Lamiaceae are among ns families with a largest variety of medicinal varieties cited in areas of restinga <2, 7, 21, 23>.

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Table 1

Medicinal plants (botanical classification, typical name, and frequency that citation) cited by 23 key informants vida in dois areas proposed for protected locations of sustainable use in the municipality of Imbituba. No. Is ns number e collection: F: Herbarium flor (UFSC); L: human being Ecology and Ethnobotany (UFSC) lab collection; IC: determined in the field; and NI: no identified¹.