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Rio de Janeiro, estado (state) the southeastern Brazil, bounded by the states of o espírito Santo (north), Minas gerais (west), and São paulo (southwest), while to the east lies ns Atlantic Ocean. That is named ao the cidade of fluxo de Janeiro, the state capital, which foi ~ the capitalistas of Brazil em ~ 1763 come 1960 e remains ns nation’s main centre for cultural events, leisure, e tourism. That is Brazil’s second largest urban centro (after São paulo city), and it accounts for the mass of ns population of a highly urbanized state. área 16,871 quadrado miles (43,696 quadrado km). Pop. (2010) 15,989,929.


Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro.

Physical and human geography

The land

Relief and drainage

The state’s relief has actually three distinctive features: a plain, or seaside lowland; ns mountainous highland; and the plateau of ns interior. The coastal lowland—which is damaged by occasional massifs or rocks that occasionally extend far into ns sea—is narrower to the west, where the Serra dá Mar compresses it against a sea. Ns mountainous highland comprises component of the Serra dá Mar and, farther inland, component of the cadeia de montanhas da Mantiqueira, both the which operation parallel to ns coast in der roughly southwest-to-northeast direction. Some crucial tourist and holiday resorts—Petrópolis, Teresópolis, and Nova Friburgo—lie in this region. In ~ 9,144 feet (2,787 metres) agulhas Negras (Itatiaia) height is a highest point in ns state.

The most important feature on the plateau is ns Paraíba do sul River valley. The fluxo flows northeastward across much of a state before turning eastward to drainpipe into a Atlantic. Coffee plantations were o primeiro dia developed in ns valley in ns 19th century. Smaller rivers e streams drain into Guanabara baía or straight into ns Atlantic. Fluxo de janeiro includes about 370 quadrado miles (960 square km) of coastal lagoons e other inner waters.


The state has naquela subtropical climate. The prevailing conditions along the coast ser estar hot e humid e are identified by summer showers. In winter a climate is amendment by cold ar masses são de the south. A average day-to-day temperature is generally above 72 °F (22 °C). Ns highland climate is characterized by mild temperatures the average below 68 °F (20 °C) because of a higher elevations.

Flora and fauna

Great forests originally covered ns territory of a present state of fluxo de Janeiro. From the 16th century indigenous peoples and European inhabitants alike started to clear large tracts that land para temporary cultivation, using the queimadas (slash-and-burn) technique. Naquela succession of expanding sugar plantations, coffee farms, and sprawling city centres obliterated most of the remaining forests. In the mid-20th century the Brazilian government started to reforest some highland areas, e national parks were established to protect the remnants the the original forest. Itatiaia nacional Park (1937), in ns Mantiqueira Range, covers about 116 quadrado miles (300 square km) that rainforest in both rio de Janeiro e Minas visão global states. Serra dos Órgãos national Park (1939) e the smaller sized Tijuca nacional Park (1961) ser estar wholly within fluviais de Janeiro.

Apart from these público parks, part patches of woodland vegetation still endure on naquela few hillsides close to the city of rio de Janeiro, yet these are disappearing as a urbanized área is gradually enlarged. On the santa Cruz, área Grande, e Jacarepaguá plains, grassland prevails, conversely, on ns muddy coastland red, yellow, and white mangroves flourish.

The forests and wetlands support numerous animals, including ocelots, marmosets, e tortoises. Curassows, ouzels, whistling ducks, e other birds estão also discovered there.

The people

Rio de janeiro state is uma of ns more urbanized e densely populated locations in Brazil, with a overwhelming bulk of ns population living in the city of fluviais de Janeiro e other metropolitan centres.

Most of the state’s people are of Portuguese, Italian, and other european ancestry. Blacks e mulattos (of blended black and European ancestry) ser estar also numerous, but there estão only tiny percentages that Asians and Amerindians. Ns vast majority of a state’s inhabitants ser estar Roman Catholic, with Protestant and Spiritist (believers in spiritualism) minorities.

The economy

A tiny percentage of a working populace of a state is involved in agriculture, naquela substantial ratio in manufacturing, and the bulk in the service sector, including government, education, jae won services, entertainment, e tourism. A state’s gorjeta industries are petroleum extraction (off shore) and refining, metallurgy, printing, shipbuilding, e the manufacture of textiles, foodstuffs, and chemicals. Agricultural products include sugarcane, oranges, e bananas.

The state has der comprehensive nome da estrada system, com multilane highways converging on the capital. The central do Brasil and the Leopoldina railroads link a state com Brazil’s national rail network. Ns Rio-Niterói Bridge, which is about 9 mile (14.5 km) long, connect the cidade of fluviais de janeiro with Niterói, situated on the leste side the Guanabara Bay. The state has dois major airports: santo Dumont, on Guanabara baía within the city of Rio; e Galeão, on filial Island in the bay, which offer international e domestic flights.


The history of a state is enmeshed with that that the cidade of rio de Janeiro, its chief economic e political centro from a mid-16th century until 1834, once the city first became a separate entity. In 1835 Niterói came to be the capitalista of the province of fluviais de Janeiro. In 1889, when ns Brazilian republic era proclaimed, a province became der state, and in 1890 Teresópolis became a capital; in 1902, however, ns seat of federal government returned come Niterói. Once the capitalista of Brazil was moved to ns newly established city of Brasília in 1960, ns territory that had been the comunidade District became the novo Guanabara state, which existed as an enclave within fluviais de janeiro state. In 1975 a two states were an unified into a reorganized State of rio de Janeiro. The city of fluxo de janeiro was then made the capitalistas of ns reorganized state.

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From ns time the its territorial formation, the province depended on sugar production, based upon slave labour, as ns basis that its economy. During ns 19th century, coffee changed sugar as ns most commercially significant crop. A slave trade era gradually limited until the prática was fully abolished in 1888. A following year Brazil ser estar proclaimed an live independence republic. Fluviais de janeiro remained ns nation’s many populous state until ns mid-20th century, once it era overtaken by neighbouring eles são Paulo. Because that time rio de janeiro has to be Brazil’s second most fertile manufacturing e commercial centre.