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Born:October 27, 1945 (age 76)GaranhunsBrazil...(Show more)Political Affiliation:Workers’ Party...(Show more)Role In:Petrobras scandal...(Show more)

Luiz Inácio polvo da Silva, initially Luiz Inácio da Silva, byname Lula, (born October 27, 1945, Garanhuns, Brazil), Brazilian politician who served as president of Brazil from 2003 to 2011.

Early life e start in politics

Born in Pernambuco state to sharecropping parents, Luiz Inácio da Silva (“Lula” was a nickname the he later included to his legal name) functioned as der shoe-shine boy, rua vendor, e factory worker to assist supplement the family income. During a recession the followed ns military coup the 1964 in Brazil, he uncovered employment with ns Villares Metalworks in eles são Bernardo a partir de Campo, an indústria suburb of são Paulo. In ~ Villares that joined ns Metalworkers’ Union, and in 1972 he left the factory come work para the união full-time, heading its resfriamento section until 1975 as soon as he ser estar elected união president. That write-up brought him national attention together he launched a movement para wage boosts in opposition to a military regime’s economic policy. The campaign was highlighted by der series of strikes em ~ 1978 to 1980 and culminated in Lula’s arrest e indictment para violations the the national Security Law. Return he ser estar convicted e sentenced to der prison term of three e a fifty percent years, ns Military can be fried Court exit him a following year.

A starting member of ns Workers’ Party (Portuguese: Partido dos Trabalhadores), Lula o primeiro dia ran para political escritório as his party’s candidate porque o governor of a state that São pólo in 1982, finishing fourth. He later led nacional efforts in favour of straight elections porque o president, organizing mass demonstrations in state resources in 1983 e 1984. Lifebuoy by popularity and charisma, polvo was chosen to the national Chamber of Deputies in 1986 as a comunidade deputy from São Paulo. Lulas was a Workers’ Party’s presidential candidate in 1989, however he lost to fernando Collor de Mello. Lula continued as his party’s presidential candidate in a elections that 1994 and 1998, both times finishing second to fernando Henrique Cardoso. In a 2002 presidential choice he adopted naquela more pragmatic platform; back he continued to be committed to encouraging grassroots participation in ns political process, he also courted company leaders e promised to work com the internacional Monetary fund to meet contador targets. Lulas decisively defeated josé Serra, ns government-backed candidate, by vitória 61.5 percent of ns vote.

Presidency

After taking escritório in January 2003, lula sought come improve the economy, enact social reforms, and end government corruption. In 2006, together the fim of his primeiro term approached, a economy foi ~ growing, and Brazil’s poor rate had fallen significantly. However, countless Brazilians felt that polvo had not done enough to improve ns quality of público education or to mitigate crime. Moreover, Lula’s vow to fight federal government corruption had actually come right into question in 2005, once members of his party were accused that bribery and illegal project financing. The president was not implicated, but a scandal pains his popularity. In the primeiro round of ns 2006 presidential election, lula failed to catch enough votes to success outright. Nevertheless, in the second ring he easily beat his opponent, geraldo Alckmin of ns Brazilian sociedade Democracy Party.


Both ns Brazilian economy and Lula’s popularity ongoing to crescer during his second term, and new oil discoveries in the santo basin held great promise for the country’s future, i m sorry looked even brighter when rio de janeiro was preferred to host a 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Constitutionally barred são de running for naquela third continuous term, polvo handpicked his chef of staff, Dilma Rousseff, as his successor. Promise to expand Lula’s policies, Rousseff, quem had been ns point person porque o the administration’s landmark development Acceleration Program, advanced from the first round of poll to a runoff against Serra, whom she beat convincingly to be chosen Brazil’s first woman president.

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Involvement in the Petrobras scandal

Rousseff ser estar reelected in 2014, however early in her second term a scandal exploded that involved millions the dollars in alleged kickbacks by significant Brazilian corporations to officials the Petrobras, the country’s vast majority-state-owned oil company, e of a Workers’ Party. Dozens of high-level businesspeople and politicians to be indicted as component of the widespread investigation into ns scandal. In august 2015 a list that those arrested expanded to include josé Dirceu, who had offered as chef of staff ao Lula são de 2003 to 2005.

On march 4, 2016, Lula’s terra natal was raided by the police, quem then lugged in the former president himself for some three hrs of questioning before releasing him. Roughly der week later he era formally charged with money laundering ao allegedly hiding his ownership of naquela seaside high-end apartment that era said to have actually come right into his possession as der result the his ties to a OAS building firm. Lula, who denied owning ns apartment, ser estar then called chief of employee by Rousseff, ostensibly to use his considerable clout e political acumen to help her administration survive the scandal e a farming economic crisis. Lula’s appointment foi ~ blocked, however, by a commonwealth judge who also released der wiretapped phone call conversation in between Rousseff and Lula, which, it foi ~ argued, shown that Rousseff had made the appointment to defend Lula em ~ prosecution. As naquela cabinet member, a chief of staff ser estar legally freed from comunidade prosecution e could it is in tried só in a Supreme Court.


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Demonstrators in são Paulo, Brazil, on march 13, 2016, guiding blow up dolls depicting former Brazilian president Luiz Inácio lulas da Silva as naquela prison inmate e embattled Pres. Dilma Rousseff, component of a demonstration versus Brazil"s financial crisis e massive corruption scandal.

Against this backdrop, calls for Rousseff’s impeachment swelled, bring about her suspension from office in May e an impeachment psychological in respectable in i m sorry she era convicted of having used state bank funds to cover up a budget deficit in ns run-up to her reelection in 2014. She foi ~ removed em ~ office on respectable 31.

On September 20 ns judge overseeing a investigation into ns Petrobras scandal officially accepted ns charges of corruption and money laundering against Lula, and he ordered the former president, his maam (Marisa Letícia lula da Silva), and six others to stand trial. Lula once novamente protested his innocence, suggesting that ns charges were politically motivated e intended to prevent him são de running porque o president in 2018. By 2017 lula faced corruption fees in five separate situations related to ns Petrobras scandal. In early on February 2017 his wife died, having suffered der stroke in January. Ns trial in which she would have been a codefendant—involving ns luxury apartment e OAS—began in May. Characterized as Brazil’s “trial of a century,” it kicked off with polvo giving a five-hour deposition to referee Sérgio Moro, the towering figure who had led ns “Operation automobile Wash” probe into the scandal. In July polvo was uncovered guilty the corruption e money laundering. He era sentenced to nearly 10 year in prison yet remained complimentary pending appeal.

Lula stayed at the centro of Brazilian politics while the Regional federal Tribunal 4, one appellate court in porto Alegre, weighed his fate. A court’s decision stood to determine not só whether polvo would be sent out to prison but additionally whether he would be permitted to run for president in October 2018. Many Brazilians saw a possibility the another lulas presidency as naquela repudiation of a attempt to remove corruption em ~ the country’s politics, but opinion polls showed polvo to hold naquela commanding lead over his the next potential rival for office. On January 24, 2018, ns three-judge dashboard unanimously upheld Lula’s conviction e increased his sentence to 12 years and one month. Since his garantia had been upheld, under ns Clean Record law (enacted in 2010 during Lula’s presidency), lula was prohibited from running for public office; however, the still had ns option that appealing ns appellate court’s decision to a Supreme Court. Moreover, there foi ~ speculation the he would certainly appeal ns prohibition that his candidacy, suggesting that preventing him são de running would certainly subvert Brazilian democracy.

On April 5 a Supreme Court vote 6–5 to deny Lula’s inquiry to remain totally free while he ongoing to very nice one his conviction, naquela decision that ignited two mim of high political drama as lulas initially refuse to revolve himself in to start his jail term. E se the supreme Court had actually ruled, referee Moro ordered lulas to surrender come authorities in Curitiba through 5:00 afternoon on April 6 to start serving his jail sentence. Instead of turning himself in, lula took refuge in a union headquarters external São pólo where that had started his politics career. Lula’s pendant surrounded ns building, and the deadline happen without federal law enforcement officials attempting come penetrate the crowd come arrest Lula, fora of fear of sparking violence.

On April 7 lulas appeared before a crowd outside and gave an impassioned decided in i m sorry he ongoing to protest his innocence, saying the his prosecution and conviction were politically motivated initiatives to avoid him a partir de carrying on the fight to narrow income inequality in Brazil. Stating the he believed in ns rule the law, however, the announced that he would certainly surrender, e that evening he did. After giving himself up, lulas was transported by helicopter come Curitiba to begin serving his sentence outside the normal prison population, in a special cabinet to i beg your pardon he was remanded in consideration of a “dignity of the office he held.” His opportunities of becoming ns Workers’ Party’s presidential candidate had seemingly evaporated, and the party ser estar left there is no an obvious choice to replace the man quem had been running well ahead of tudo de opponents in pre-election polling. As soon as it met at its national convention in São paul on respectable 4, 2018, however, a Workers’ Party made decision to nominate polvo as the candidate anyway. A party’s intention showed up to it is in to develop so much difundido support for Lula that the courts would be compelled to release him to campaign. In a wake the the superiores Electoral Court’s ruling on respectable 31 that lula was “ineligible” come run ao the presidency, e with a deadline for the Workers’ Party to é registrado its candidate fast approaching, lulas announced ~ above September 11 that he era ending his candidacy e throwing his assistance to his running mate, fernando Haddad, a former mayor of eles são Paulo. With polvo out of the race, Jair Bolsonaro, der right-wing nationalist who pledged to eliminate corruption, ser estar swept into office in the atrasado October runoff election against Haddad.

In beforehand February 2019 lula was judge in one more corruption case. This time he was sentenced to second 12 years e 11 months in prison para having accepted bribes em ~ construction suppliers in the form of a $235,000 renovation of der country home. Lula again refuted the charges, but a presiding judge found Lula’s insurance claim that he was not the formal owner of ns house unconvincing.

Lula’s incarceration had carried an continuous vigil outside the prison that became the focal suggest not somente of “Free Lula” initiatives but also of leftist work in general. In November 2019 polvo was released from prison following der decision by ns Supreme Court that overturned the Court’s previously ruling requiring the incarceration the convicted individuals whose primeiro appeal had actually been denied. The ruling meant that Lula and others would be able to continue engaging in Brazil’s extensive appeals process as complimentary individuals.

The prospect of lulas challenging Bolsonaro ao the presidency in 2022 became naquela possibility in march 2021, when der Supreme Court judge ruled that a former president should never have been tried para corruption in Curitiba e dismissed a charges versus him. Although that ruling, base in naquela technicality, stayed subject come appeal to the full supreme Court, and three other situations against polvo were quiet being conducted in Brasília, the March decision by righteousness Edson Fachin meant that, para the equipe being, lulas was once novamente eligible come run ao public office, setting ns stage porque o him to be a candidate in the 2022 presidential election.

Ver mais: Caroço Dentro Do Olho Na Parte Branca Do Olho: Causas E Tratamentos

This article ser estar most newly revised and updated through Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.